Vertigo is a symptom of illusory movement. Almost everyone has experienced vertigo as the transient spinning dizziness immediately after turning around rapidly several times. Vertigo can also be a sense of swaying or tilting. Some perceive self-motion whereas others perceive motion of the environment.
Vertigo is a symptom, not a physical sign or a diagnosis. It arises because of asymmetry in the vestibular system due to damage to or dysfunction of the labyrinth, vestibular nerve, or central vestibular structures in the brainstem or cerebellum.
However, in most cases, the clinical history, especially the tempo of the symptomswith examination findings that distinguish between central and peripheral etiologiesidentify those patients that require urgent diagnostic evaluation.